For the a beneficial multicenter, double-blind, placebo-managed demo, 672 fit men (indicate age 61
8 many years) have been randomized so you’re able to every single day calcium supplements (1,2 hundred mg) to have four years. If you’re zero rise in the risk to own prostate cancer could have been claimed throughout the an effective ten.step three-season go after-up, calcium supplements supplements resulted in a critical risk reduction in the period comprising out-of 2 yrs once procedures come to a couple of years just after procedures ended (150). In a glance at the latest literature published last year, the us Agency getting Medical care Research and Quality revealed that not all the epidemiological education located a connection ranging from calcium consumption and you will prostate cancer tumors (151). New remark reported that six away from eleven observational degree were unsuccessful to sites de rencontres en ligne gratuits pour cÃ©libataires hÃ©tÃ©rosexuels get mathematically extreme confident connections ranging from prostate malignant tumors and you will calcium supplements intake. But really, into the five training, day-after-day intakes away from 921 to help you 2,000 mg out-of calcium supplements was basically found to be regarding the an enthusiastic improved risk of development prostate disease when compared to intakes starting off 455 to 1,one hundred thousand mg/date (151). Inconsistencies certainly one of training strongly recommend cutting-edge relationships amongst the chance products to own prostate malignant tumors, as well as echo the difficulties from determining the effect from calcium intake in the totally free-life people. Such, the reality that people with large dairy and you may/otherwise calcium intakes were discovered to be more likely to end up being engaged in fit life-style or higher browsing find medical attention can be mitigate the latest analytical dependence on an association that have prostate cancers risk (152).
Do calcium help the exposure getting heart problems?
Multiple observational knowledge and you can randomized managed samples have raised questions out of the potential side effects off calcium supplements for the cardiovascular chance. The study of data regarding the Kuopio Osteoporosis Exposure Basis and you can Protection (OSTPRE) potential research discovered that profiles away from calcium between 10,555 Finnish lady (many years 52-62 ages) had a great fourteen% greater risk of fabricating coronary artery condition compared to the non-complement users throughout a suggest pursue-up away from six.75 ages (153). The target study of 23,980 players (35-64 yrs old) of Heidelberg cohort of your own Western european Prospective Studies toward Disease and Diet cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg) seen you to supplemental calcium intake try undoubtedly from the chance from myocardial infarction (stroke) but not towards the danger of stroke or heart disease (CVD)-relevant death immediately after a hateful go after-right up from eleven years (154). Yet, the usage calcium supplements (?eight hundred mg/time versus. 0 milligrams/day) was from the a heightened chance of CVD-related death for the 219,059 men, however during the 169,170 lady, included in the Federal Institute of Wellness (NIH)-AARP Diet and Wellness data and observed to have an indicate months out of a dozen age. CVD death for the people was also seen to be significantly highest that have overall (diet also extra) calcium supplements consumption of just one,five hundred mg/go out and you may above (155).
Until the dating anywhere between calcium and you may prostate malignant tumors are explained, it is sensible for males to consume a maximum of step 1,100000 to just one,two hundred mg/day’s calcium supplements (diet and products joint), which is necessary of the Food and Nutrients Panel of Institute out-of Drug (see RDA) (9)
In addition, the secondary analyses of two randomized placebo-controlled trials initially designed to assess the effect of calcium on bone health outcomes also suggested an increased risk of CVD in participants daily supplemented with 1,000 mg of calcium for five to seven years (156, 157). In the Auckland Calcium Study of 1,471 healthy postmenopausal women (ages ?55 years), calcium supplementation resulted in increased risks of myocardial infarction and of a composite cardiovascular endpoint, including myocardial infarction, stroke, or sudden death (156). The analysis of data from 36,282 healthy postmenopausal women randomized to receive a combination of calcium (1,000 mg/day) and vitamin D (400 IU/day) or a placebo in the Women’s Health Initiative/Calcium-Vitamin D supplementation study (WHI/CaD study) initially reported no adverse effect on any cardiovascular endpoints with calcium (and vitamin D) compared to placebo (158). A re-analysis was performed with data from 16,718 women who did not take personal calcium supplements (outside protocol) during the five-year study (157). Although criticized on the approach taken (134, 159), the investigators estimated that women supplemented with calcium and vitamin D had a 16% increased risk of clinical myocardial infarction or stroke and a 21% increased risk of myocardial infarction compared to those who received a placebo (157). However, in another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial – the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome (CAIFOS) study – in elderly women (median age, 75.1 years), the supplementation of 1,200 mg/day of calcium for five years was not found to increase the risk of vascular disease or related mortality (160). The WHI/CaD data re-analysis also failed to show an increased risk of mortality due to myocardial infarction or coronary artery disease with calcium therapy (156). Also, after an additional follow-up of 4.5 years at the end of the treatment period in the CAIFOS trial, the investigators reported fewer cases of heart failure-related deaths with supplemental calcium compared to placebo (160). In another randomized, placebo-controlled trial of calcium and/or vitamin D3 (RECORD trial), the evaluation of the effect of 1,000 mg/day of calcium (alone or with 800 IU/day of vitamin D) reported no significant increase in the rate of mortality due to vascular disease in 5,292 participants ages 70 years and older (161). A recent cross-sectional analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) evaluated the association between calcium intakes and cardiovascular mortality in 18,714 adults with no history of heart disease. No evidence of an association was observed between dietary calcium intake, supplemental calcium intake, or total calcium intake and cardiovascular mortality in either men or women (162).